Effect of taurine precursor on growth and taurine content of rarine fish
Palabras clave:Cysteine, Cysteamine, Cysteic acid, Soybean meal, Low fishmeal diet
Taurine is thought to be synthesized from methionine and cysteine by the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway in freshwater fish, but not in carnivorous marine fish. However, there are two biosynthetic pathways of taurine: cysteamine pathway and cysteic acid pathway. However, the synthesis via these two pathways has not been investigated by a feeding trial using these taurine precursors. We investigated possible taurine synthesis from these two pathways using freshwater fish (carp) and marine carnivorous fish such as red sea bream and Japanese flounder. As a result, it was found that taurine can be synthesized from the two pathways, and that cysteic acid has a higher potency of taurine accumulation than cysteamine. Also, there is a risk of occurrence of malformations in fish when fed excessive cysteamine in diet. Considering risk of having malformation in fish fed cysteamine, cysteic acid is a better choice as taurine precursor. We also examined effect of taurine supplementation to non-fishmeal diet on distal intestine of juvenile red sea bream. We observed that plant protein-based non-fishmeal diet caused lower growth, pathological changes of the intestine with high expression of cytokine genes of red sea bream but these changes can be ameliorated by taurine. This improvement was observed by 1-2% taurine which is beyond the requirement for red seabream estimated by growth study, suggesting that taurine supplementation is beneficial for fish fed plant-based diet in terms of ameliorating intestinal defects as well as preventing green liver syndrome in marine carnivorous fish. This paper also discusses possible inclusion of cysteamine and cysteic acid in feedstuffs, the possible mechanisms of amelioration of plant ingredient-induced intestinal damage by taurine, the response of taurine synthesizing enzyme gene expression to sulfur amino acid in fish, and new taurine source candidates for aquafeed.
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