Practical Diets for Litopenaeus Vannamei (Boone, 1931): Working Towards Organic and/or All Plant Production Diets.


  • D. Allen Davis Auburn University
  • Tzachi M. Samocha Auburn University
  • Robert A. Bullis Auburn University
  • Susmita Patnaik Auburn University
  • Craig L. Browdy Auburn University
  • Alvin D. Stokes Auburn University
  • Heidi L. Atwood Auburn University


As shrimp prices become more competitive and the profit margins declining, producers are looking to high value
markets for their products. Shrimp produced using organic or environmentally friendly production conditions have
the potential to bring in higher prices through market differentiation. However, if one is to develop production
schemes for such markets, one must also produce an organic feed or one that has minimal levels of marine proteins
and oils. In previous research we developed a practical diet formulation without fish meal but containing marine
fish oil. Since supplies of fish oil are also limited, this work concentrated on replacement of the marine oil source as
well as the testing of an experimental organic diet. In the first experiment, fish oil in two of the diets was substituted
by oil originating from commercially produced algae containing approximately 50% oil. These diets as well as a
commercial feed were offered to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) over a 15 week growth trial. At the
conclusion of the growth trial, survival, final weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were not significantly
different among treatments. In the second experiment, the diet previously tested using plant and algae oils was
tested against a diet using only plant oils. To examine the potential of an organic diet, a practical diet using
primarily organic ingredients was also tested. The three diets were tested in conjunction with a commercial control
diet over a 12-week growth period. At the conclusion of this trial, shrimp reared on the organic diet and the diet
without algae oil supplements were significantly smaller than those offered the commercial control. This result is
presumably due to a lack of HUFA in the diets without algae oils high in DHA and AA. To further test the potential
of a feed without fish meal, a commercial version of one of the test diets was produced at a feed mill and tested
under pond production conditions. As this was only a demonstration, statistical differences cannot be determined
but the feed did appear to produce acceptable results under commercial pond production conditions. Based on the
results of these studies, it would appear that both fish meal and marine oil sources can be removed from shrimp
feeds if suitable alternative sources of protein and lipids are provided to meet essential amino acid and fatty acid
requirements of the shrimp. Although this study confirms the biological feasibility of fish meal and fish oil
replacement at the densities tested, commercial application will require further analysis of relative costs and
marketing benefits of these technologies.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Bureau, D.P. and C.Y. Cho. (2000). Nutritive value of rendered animal protein ingredients for fish: outline of

recent studies.

Chamberlain, G.W. (1993). Aquaculture trends and feed projections. World Aquaculture 24(1):19-29.

D’Abramo, L.R. and S.S. Sheen. (1993). Polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrition in juvenile freshwater prawn

Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture 115:63-86.

Davis, D. A. and C. R. Arnold. (2000). Replacement of fish meal in practical diets for the Pacific white

shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture185:291-298.

FAO. (2003a).

FAO. (2003b). Overview of fish production, utilization, consumption and trade based on 2001 data. FAO,

Fisheries Information, Data and Statistics Unit. Rome. 3 p.

Fenucci, J.J., A.L. Lawrance, and Z.P. Zein-Eldin. (1981). The effects of fatty acids and shrimp meal

composition of prepared diets on growth of juvenile shrimp, Penaeus stylirostris. Journal of the

World Mariculture Society 12(1):315-324.

Floreto, E.A., R.C. Bayer, and P.B. Brown. (2000). The effects of soybean-based diets, with and without

amino acid supplementation, on growth and biochemical composition of juvenile American lobster,

Homarus americanus. Aquaculture 189:211-235.

Forster, I. P., W. Dominy, L. Obaldo and A. G. J. Tacon. (2003). Rendered meat and bone meals as

ingredients of diets for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Aquaculture 219:655-670.

Guary, J.C., M. Kayama, and H. J. Ceccaldi (1976). The effects of a fat-free diet and compounded diets

supplemented with various oils on moult, growth and fatty acid composition of prawn, Penaeus


Hertrampf, J.W. and F. Piedad-Pascual. (2000). Handbook on Ingredients for Aquaculture Feeds. Kluwer

Academic Publishers (ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 573 p.

Kanazawa, A., S. Tokiwa, M. Kayama, and M. Hirata. (1977). Essential fatty acids in the diet of prawn: I.

Effects of linoleic and linolenic acids on growth. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific

Fisheries 43:1111-1114.

Lee, P.G., N.J. Blake and G.E. Rodrick. (1980). A quantitative analysis of digestive enzymes for the

freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Proceedings of the World Mariculture Society


Lee, P.G. and A.L. Lawrence. (1997). Digestibility. In Crustacean Nutrition. L.R. D’Abramo, D.E. Conklin

and D.M. Akiyama, (eds.). Advances in World Aquaculture 6:194-260.

Lim, C. and D.M. Akiyama. (1995). Nutrient requirements of penaeid shrimps. In Nutrition and utilization

technology in aquaculture. C.E. Lim and D.J. Sessa (eds.). Champaign, Illinois, AOCS Press, pp.


Li, M.H, E.H. Robinson and R.W. Hardy. (2000). Protein sources for feed. In Encyclopedia of aquaculture.

R.R. Stickney (ed.), New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp. 688-695.

Millamena, O.M. and E. Quinitio. (2000).The effects of diets and reproductive performance of eyestalk

ablated and intact mud crab Scylla serrata. Aquaculture 181:81-90.

Martin, B.J. (1980). Croissance et acides gras de la crevette Palaemon serratus (Crustacea, Decapoda)

nourrie avec des aliments composés contenant différentes proportions d'acide linoleique et

linolénique*1: Growth and fatty acids of Palaemon serratus (Crustacea, Decapoda) fed with

compounded diets containing different proportions of linoleic and linolenic acids. Aquaculture 19:


Olvera-Novoa, M.A. and L. Olivera-Castillo. (2000). Potencialidad del uso de las leguminosas como fuente

proteica en alimentos para peces. In Avances en Nutrición Acuícola. Memorias del IV simposio

Internacional de Nutrición Acuícola, Noviembre 15-18, 1998. R.Civera-Cerecedo, C.J. Perez-

Estrada, D. Ricque-Marie and L.E Cruz-Suarez (eds.). Merida, Yacatan, Mexico. B.C.S., pp.327-

Read, G.H.L. (1981). The response of Penaeus indicus (Crustacea: Penaeidea) to purified and compounded

diets of varying fatty acid composition. Aquaculture 24: 245-256.

Samocha, T. M., D. A. Davis, I. P. Saoud , and K. DeBault. (2004). Substitution of fish meal by co-extruded

soybean poultry by-product meal in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus

vannamei. Aquaculture. 231:197-203.

Shiau S.Y. (1998). Nutrient requirements of penaeid shrimps. Aquaculture 164: 77-93.

Sudaryono, A., M.J. Hoxey, S.G. Kailis, and L.M. Evans (1995). Investigation of alternative protein sources

in practical diets for juvenile shrimp Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture 134:313–323.

Tacon, A.G.J., W.G. Dominy and G.D. Pruder. (2000). Tendencias y retos globales de los alimentos para el

camaron. In Advances en nutricion acuicola, memorias del V simposium internacional de nutricion

acuicola. Cruz Suarez, L.E., Ricque-Marie, D., M. Tapia-Salazar and R. Civera-Cerecedo (eds.).

Merida, Yacatan, Mexico.19-22 Noviembre.

Tacon, A.G.J. and D.M. Akiyama. (1997). Feed ingredients. In Crustacean Nutrition. L.R. D’Abramo, D.E.

Conklin and D.M. Akiyama, (eds.). Advances in World Aquaculture 6: 411-472.

Tacon, A.G.J. and U.C. Barg. (1998). Major challenges to feed development for marine and diadromous

finfish and crustaceans species. In Tropical Mariculture, S.S. De Silva (ed.). New York: Academic

Press, pp. 171-207.

Tidwell, J.H., Webster, C.D., Yancey, D.H. and D’Abramo, L.R. (1993). Partial and total replacement of fish

meal with soybean meal and distiller by-products in diets for pond culture of the freshwater prawn

Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture 118:119-130.

Viola, S., Y. Arieli and G. Zohar. (1988). Animal-protein-free feeds for hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

× O. aureus) in intensive culture. Aquaculture 75: 115-125.

Viola, S., S. Mokady, U.Rappaport and Y. Arieli. (1982). Partial and complete replacement of fishmeal by

soybean meal in feeds for intensive culture of carp. Aquaculture 26:223-236.

Webster, C.D., D.H. Yancey and J.H. Tidwell. (1995). Effect of partially or totally replacing fish meal with

soybean meal on growth of blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus). Aquaculture 103:141-152.

Wu, Y.V., R. Rosati, D.J. Sessa and P. Brown. (1995). The Progressive Fish Culturist 57:305-309.


Cómo citar

Davis, D. A., M. Samocha, T., A. Bullis, R., Patnaik, S., L. Browdy, C., D. Stokes, A., & L. Atwood, H. (2019). Practical Diets for Litopenaeus Vannamei (Boone, 1931): Working Towards Organic and/or All Plant Production Diets. Avances En Nutrición Acuicola. Recuperado a partir de