Requirements for the culture of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in low salinity waters: water modification and nutritional strategies for improving production
Palabras clave:Litopenaeus vannamei, shrimp .
ResumenThe culture of shrimp utilizing low salinity water (LSW) has become common practice in a number of countries worldwide. The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is the preferred shrimp species for culture in LSW, primarily due to its remarkable ability to effectively grow and survive at extreme salinities. In the last decade, significant strides have been made in the understanding of low salinity culture of this particular species. Improved understanding of the physiology of L. vannamei has translated into the development of effective culture techniques that have resulted in profits for farmers utilizing LSW. In general, two separate strategies have been employed by researchers to improve growth and survival of L. vannamei reared in LSW. These strategies include water modification approaches which alter the low salinity rearing medium to make it more acceptable for production of shrimp and nutritional strategies that focus on modification of diets offered to shrimp, usually with supplements that might theoretically improve osmoregulatory capacity. This article seeks to summarize research findings from both of these approaches and ultimately provide a recommendation to shrimp farmers using LSW as a rearing medium for the culture of L. vannamei.
Araneda M., Perez E.P. & Gasca-Leyva E. (2008) White shrimp Penaeus vannamei culture in freshwater at three densities: condition state based on length and weight. Aquaculture 283, 13-18.
Atwood H.L., Young S.P., Tomasso J.R. & Browdy C.L. (2003) Survival and growth of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae in low-salinity and mixed-salt environments. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34, 518-523.
Boyd C.A., Boyd C.E. & Rouse D.B. (2007a) Potassium adsorption by bottom soils in ponds for inland culture of marine shrimp in Alabama. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 38, 85-91.
Boyd C.A., Boyd C.E. & Rouse D.B. (2007b) Potassium budget for inland, saline water shrimp ponds in Alabama. Aquaculture Engineering 36, 45-50.
Boyd C.A., Chaney P.L., Boyd C.E. & Rouse D.B. (2009) Distribution of ground water suitable for use in saline-water aquaculture in central and west-central Alabama. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 21, 228-240.
Boyd C.E. & Thunjai T. (2003) Concentrations of major ions in waters of inland shrimp farms in China, Ecuador, Thailand, and the United States. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34, 524-532.
Boyd CE, Thunjai T, Boonyaratpalin M (2003) Dissolved salts in water for inland, low salinity shrimp culture. Global Aquaculture Advocate 5: 40-45.
Cawthorne D.F., Beard T., Davenport J. & Wickins J.F. (1983) Responses of juvenile Penaeus monodon Fabricius to natural and artificial sea waters of low salinity. Aquaculture 32, 165-174.
Cheng K.M., Hu C.Q., Liu Y.N., Zheng S.X. & Qi X.J. (2005) Dietary magnesium requirement and physiological responses of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared in low salinity water. Aquaculture Nutrition 11, 385-393.
Chien Y.H., Pan C.H. & Hunger B. (2003) The resistance to physical stresses by Penaeus monodon juveniles fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin. Aquaculture 216, 177-191.
Cuvin-Aralar M.L.A., Lazartigue A.G. & Aralar E.V. (2009) Cage culture of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) at different stocking densities in a shallow eutrophic lake. Aquaculture Research 40, 181-187.
Darachai J., Piyatiratitivorakul S. & Menasveta P. (1999) Effect of astaxanthin on stress resistance of Penaeus monodon larvae. In: Proceedings of the 37th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, pp. 240-245. Text and Journal Publication Co., Bangkok, Thailand.
Davis DA, Lawrence AL (1997) Minerals. In: D’Abramo LR, Conklin DE, Akiyama DM (eds) Crustacean Nutrition, Vol. 6, pp. 150-163. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Davis D.A., Saoud I.P., McGraw W.J. & Rouse D.B. (2002) Considerations for Litopenaeus vannamei reared in inland low salinity waters. In: (ed. by I.E. Cruz-Suárez, D. Ricque-Marie, M. Tapia-Salazar, M.G. Gaxiola-Cortés & N. Simoes) Avances en Nutrición Acuicola VI, pp. 73-90. Memorias del VI Simposium Internacional de Nutrición Acuicola. Cancún, México.
Davis D.A., Samocha T.M. & Boyd C.E. (2004) Acclimating Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to inland, low-salinity waters. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication No. 2601. 8 pp.
Davis D.A., Saoud I.P., Boyd C.E. & Rouse D.B. (2005) Effects of potassium, magnesium, and age on growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae reared in inland low salinity well waters in west Alabama. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 36, 403-406.
D’Abramo L.R., Wright J.S., Wright K.H., Bordner C.E. & Conklin D.E. (1985) Sterol requirements of cultured juvenile crayfish Pacififasticus leniusculus. Aquaculture 49, 245-255.
Esparza-Leal H.M., Ponce-Palafox J.T., Valenzuela-Quiňónez W., Beltrán H.C., Figueroa J.L.A. (2009) The effect of low salinity water with different ionic composition on the growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) in intensive culture. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 21, 215-227.
Fielder D.S., Bardsley W.J. & Allan G.L. (2001) Survival and growth of Australian snapper, Pagrus auratus, in saline groundwater from inland New South Wales, Australia. Aquaculture 201, 73-90.
Forsberg J.A. & Neill W.H. (1997) Saline groundwater as an aquaculture medium: physiological studies on the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Environmental Biology of Fishes 49, 119-128.
Flores M., Diaz F., Medina R., Re A.D. & Licea A. (2007) Physiological, metabolic and haematological responses in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) juveniles fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin acclimated to low-salinity water. Aquaculture Research 38, 740-747.
Gatlin D.M. III, MacKenzie D.S., Craig S.R. & Neil W.H. (1992) Effects of dietary sodium chloride on red drum juveniles in waters of various salinities. Progressive Fish Culturist 54, 220-227.
Gong H., Jiang D.H., Lightner D.V., Collins C. & Brock D. (2004) A dietary modification approach to improve the osmoregulatory capacity of Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in the Arizona desert. Aquaculture Nutrition 10, 227-236.
González-Félix M.L., Perez-Velazquez M., Quintero-Alvarez J.M. & Davis D.A. (2009) Effect of various dietary levels of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids and different n-3/–6 ratios on biological performance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, raised in low salinity water. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 40, 194- 206.
Green B.W. (2008) Stocking strategies for production of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in amended freshwater in inland ponds. Aquaculture Research 39, 10-17.
Holsapple D.R. (1990) The effects of dietary sodium chloride on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in fresh and brackish water. Master’s Thesis. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
Huai M.Y., Tian L.X., Liu Y.J., Xu A.L., Liang G.Y. & Yang H.J. (2009) Quantitative dietary threonine requirement of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) reared in low salinity water. Aquaculture Research 40, 904-914.
Hurtado M.A., Racotta I.S., Arjona O., Hernández-Rodríguez M., Goytortúa E., Civera R. & Palacios E. (2006) Effect of hypo- and hyper-saline conditions on osmolarity and fatty acid composition of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) fed low- and high-HUFA diets. Aquaculture Research 37, 1316-1326.
Hurtado M.A., Racotta I.S., Civera R., Ibarra L., Hernández-Rodríguez M. & Palacios E. (2007) Effect of hypo- and hypersaline conditions on osmolality and Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity in juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) fed low- and high-HUFA diets. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 147(A), 703-710.
Laramore S., Laramore C.R. & Scarpa J. (2001) Effect of low salinity on growth and survival of postlarvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 32, 385-392.
Li P., Wang X., Murthy S., Gatlin III D.M., Castille F.L. & Lawrence A.L. 2010. Effect of dietary supplementation of brewer’s yeast and GroBiotic®-A on growth, immune responses, and low-salinity tolerance of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in recirculating systems. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 21, 110-119.
Mantel L.H. & Farmer L.L. (1983) Osmotic and ionic regulation. In: (ed. by L.H. Mantel) The Biology of Crustacea, vol. 5, Internal Anatomy and Physiological Regulation, pp. 54-162. Academic Press, New York, NY.
McGraw J.W. & Scarpa J. (2003) Minimum environmental potassium for survival of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in freshwater. Journal of Shellfish Research 22, 263-267.
McGraw J.W. & Scarpa J. (2004) Mortality of freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei associated with acclimation rate, habituation period, and ionic challenge. Aquaculture 236, 285-296.
McGraw J.W., Davis D.A., Teichert-Coddington D. & Rouse D.B. (2002) Acclimation of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae to low salinity: influence of age, salinity endpoint, and rate of salinity reduction. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 33, 78-84.
McNevin A.A., Boyd C.E., Silapajarn O. & Silapajarn K. (2004) Ionic supplementation of pond waters for inland culture of marine shrimp. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 35, 460-467.
Palacios E., Bonilla A., Pérez A., Racotta I.S. & Civera R. (2004) Influence of highly unsaturated fatty acids on the responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) postlarvae to low salinity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 299, 201-215.
Parmenter K.J., Bisesi J.H., Young S.P., Klaine S.J., Atwood J.L., Browdy C.L. & Tomasso J.R. (2009) Culture of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in a mixed-ion solution. North American Journal of Aquaculture 71, 134-137.
Partridge G.J. & Lymbery A.J. (2008) The effect of salinity on the requirement for potassium by barramundi (Lates calcarifer) in saline groundwater. Aquaculture 278, 164-170.
Partridge G.J., Lymbery A.J. & George R.J. (2008) Finfish mariculture in inland Australia: A review of potential water sources, species, and production systems. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 39, 291-310.
Pequeux A. (1995) Osmotic regulation in crustaceans. Journal of Crustacean Biology 15, 1-60.
Pine H.J. (2008) Investigations of brackish water aquaculture in the Blackland Prairie region of western Alabama. Ph.D. Dissertation. Auburn University, Auburn, AL. USA.
Prangnell D.I. & Fotedar R. (2006) The growth and survival of western king prawns, Penaeus latisulcatus Kishinouye, in potassium-fortified inland saline water. Aquaculture 259, 234-242.
Rees J.F., Cure K., Piyatiratitivorakul S., Sorgeloos P. & Menasveta P. (1994) Highly unsaturated fatty acid requirements of Penaeus monodon postlarvae: an experimental approach based on Artemia enrichment. Aquaculture 122, 193-207.
Rosas C., Cuzon G., Taboada G., Pascual C., Gaxiola G. & Van Wormhoudt A. (2001a) Effect of dietary protein and energy levels on growth, oxygen consumption, haemolymph and digestive gland carbohydrates, nitrogen excretion and osmotic pressure of Litopenaeus vannamei and L. setiferus juveniles (Crustacea, Decapoda; Paneaidae). Aquaculture Research. 32, 531-537.
Rosas C., Cuzon G., Gaxiola G., Le Priol Y., Pascual C., Rossignyol J., Contreras F., Sanchez A. & Van Wormhoudt A. (2001b) Metabolism and growth of juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei: effect of salinity and dietary carbohydrate levels. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 259, 1-22.
Roy L.A., Davis D.A. & Saoud I.P. (2006) Effects of lecithin and cholesterol supplementation to practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei reared in low salinity waters. Aquaculture 257, 446-452.
Roy L.A., Davis D.A., Saoud I.P. & Henry R.P. (2007a) Branchial carbonic anhydrase activity and ninhydrin positive substances in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, acclimated to low and high salinities. Comparative Biochemistry and. Physiology 147(A), 404-411.
Roy L.A., Davis D.A., Saoud I.P. & Henry R.P. (2007b) Effects of varying levels of aqueous potassium and magnesium on survival, growth, and respiration of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in low salinity waters. Aquaculture 262, 461-469.
Roy L.A., Davis D.A., Saoud I.P. & Henry R.P. (2007c) Supplementation of potassium, magnesium, and sodium chloride in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in low salinity waters. Aquaculture Nutrition 13, 104-113.
Roy L.A., Davis D.A. & Whitis G.N. (2009a) Pond-to-pond variability in post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, survival and growth in inland low salinity waters of west Alabama. Aquaculture Research 40, 1823-1829.
Roy L.A., Bordinhon A., Sookying D., Davis D.A., Brown T.W. & Whitis G.N. (2009b) Demonstration of alternative feeds for Litopenaeus vannamei reared in low salinity waters of west Alabama. Aquaculture Research 40, 496-503.
Roy L.A., Davis D.A., Nguyen T.N. & Saoud I.P. (2009c) Supplementation of chelated magnesium to diets for Litopenaeus vannamei reared in low salinity waters of west Alabama. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 40, 248-254.
Samocha T.M., Hamper L., Emberson C.R., Davis A.D., McIntosh D., Lawrence A.L. & Van Wyk P. (2002) Review of some recent developments in sustainable shrimp farming practices in Texas, Arizona, and Florida. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 12, 1-30.
Samocha T.M., Lawrence A.L. & Pooser D. (1998) Growth and survival of juvenile Penaeus vannamei in low salinity water in a semi-closed recirculating system. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture 50, 55-59.
Saoud I.P., Davis D.A. & Rouse D.B. (2003) Suitability studies of inland well waters for Litopenaeus vannamei culture. Aquaculture 217, 373-383.
Saoud I.P. & Davis D.A. (2005) Effects of betaine supplementation to feeds of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared at extreme salinities. North American Journal of Aquaculture 67, 351-353.
Saoud I.P., Roy L.A. & Davis D.A. (2007) Chelated potassium and arginine supplementation in diets of Pacific white shrimp reared in low-salinity waters of west Alabama. North American Journal of Aquaculture 69, 265-270.
Shiau S.Y. & Hsieh J.F. (2001) Dietary potassium requirement of juvenile grass shrimp. Penaeus monodon. Fisheries Science 67, 592-595.
Smith L.L. & Lawrence A.L. (1990) Feasibility of penaeid shrimp culture in inland saline groundwater-fed ponds. Texas Journal of Science 42, 3-12.
Sowers A.D. & Tomasso Jr J.R. (2006) Production characteristics of Litopenaeus vannamei in low-salinity water augmented with mixed salts. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 37, 214-217.
Teshima S. (1986) Phospholipids and Sterols. In: Crustacean Nutrition (ed. by L.D. D’Abramo , D.E. Conklin & D.M. Akiyama), pp. 85-107. World Aquaculture Society. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA.
Teshima S., Kanazawa A. & Kakuta Y. (1986) Role of dietary phospholipids in the transport of [14C] cholesterol in prawn. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 25, 714-723.
Teshima S., Ishikawa M., Koshio S. & Kanazawa A. (1997) Assessment of cholesterol requirements in the prawn, Penaeus japonicus. Aquaculture Nutrition 3, 247-253.
Tsuzuki M.Y., Cavalli R.O. & Bianchini A. (2000) The effects of temperature, age, and acclimation to salinity on the survival of Farfantepenaeus paulensis postlarvae. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 31, 459-468.
Ur-Rahman S., Jain A.K., Reddy A.K., Kumar G. & Raju K.D. (2005) Ionic manipulation of inland saline groundwater for enhancing survival and growth of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius). Aquaculture Research 36, 1149-1156.
Wang X., Ma M., Dong S. & Cao M. (2004) Effects of salinity and dietary carbohydrate levels on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of Shellfish Research 23, 231-236.
Wouters R., Vanhauwaert A., Naessens E., Pedrazzoli A. & Lavens P. (1997) The effect of dietary –3 HUFA and 22:6n-3/20:5n-3 ratio on white shrimp larvae and postlarvae. Aquaculture International 5, 113-126.
Zaugg W.S., Roley D.D., Prentice E.F., Gores K.X. & Waknitz F.W. (1983) Increased seawater survival and contribution to the fishery of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by supplemental dietary salt. Aquaculture 32, 183-188.
Zhu C., Dong S., Wang F. & Huang G. (2004) Effects of Na/K ratio in seawater on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture 234, 485-496.
Zhu C., Dong S., Wang F (2006) The interaction of salinity and Na/K ratio in seawater on growth, nutrient retention and food conversion of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of Shellfish Research 25, 107-112.