Uso de Betaina en Alimentos Acuícolas: Atractante, Osmoregulador o Metabolito Lipotrófico?


  • Martin Guérin Finnfeeds International Ltd


La betaina o betaina-glicina, es un metabolito natural encontrado en muchos organismos vivos,
especialmente en aquellos que crecen en el ambiente marino. En este trabajo se discuten las
principales funciones y aplicaciones de la betaina en alimentos para acuicultura. La betaina,
electrolito bipolar que lleva tres grupos metilo, deriva de su estructura química sus principales
propiedades son como osmoprotector, atractante y donador de metilos. Si bien las propiedades
osmo-protectoras de la betaina han sido en su mayor parte estudiadas en salmonidos, con la
mayoría de las dietas comerciales de transferencia marina suplementadas con betaina para
salmón y trucha, hay indicadores de que la betaina tendría funciones similares en otras
especies de peces y crustáceos marinos. La estimulación alimenticia y propiedades atractantes
de la betaina han sido documentadas con un gran número de especies de peces y camarones
de importancia para la acuicultura, usualmente teniendo efectos sinérgicos cuando se mezcla
con otros atractantes. Por otra parte, y contrario a los animales terrestres donde las funciones
lipotrópicas y otras funciones relacionadas con la donación de metilos de la betaina han sido
mejor documentados, el campo de aplicación de betaina dietética en la acuicultura ha sido muy
poco estudiado. La única aplicación común de la betaina en esta actividad es usarla en
alimentos acuícolas comerciales para ahorrar en el uso del cloruro de colina, debido a su
mayor eficiencia como donador metilos, y para disminuir el impacto negativo sobre la
estabilidad de las vitaminas. Sin embargo, otras aplicaciones potenciales prometedoras tales
como ahorrar en el suplemennto de metionina, reducción en grasas del cuerpo o propiedades
de economía de energía, permanecen inexploradas.


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Cómo citar

Guérin, M. (2019). Uso de Betaina en Alimentos Acuícolas: Atractante, Osmoregulador o Metabolito Lipotrófico?. Avances En Nutrición Acuicola. Recuperado a partir de